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专业合同翻译要求--北京合同翻译公司为您提供合

时间:2021-04-03   访问量:1102
合同翻译 精髓
 一、法律翻译的实质
法律翻译是指在意思不变的情况下,两种法律语言之间的转换过程。因此,可以这么说,法律翻译像 其它翻译一样,是充当一种桥梁和沟通的作用。特别是现在的中国,越来越多的外国公司来到中国,而越来越多的中国公司走出国门,走向世界。在中国公司和外国 公司达成交易,它们的律师都必须编制双语法律文件,以便中外公司双方都能理解它们所达成的各项交易条款。律师在编制双语法律文件时,就必须进行法律翻译。在这个时候,法律翻译就是充当交易双方的一个桥梁和纽带,它可以使双方都了解它们所达成交易的各项条件。从这个角度讲,法律翻译和其它的一般翻译没有多大区别。
但是,法律翻译也由自己特殊的地方。由于法律文件对双方所达成的交易影响很大,稍有不慎就会给当事人造成难以弥补的损失。所以对交易的当事人来说,法律翻译是非常重要的,容不得半点差错和马虎。因此,法律翻译与其它翻译的一种最重要的区别是它的准确性要求非常高,原文中的意思不得作任何扩大或缩小,而只能等同。同时由于法律语言句式冗长、结构复杂,翻译的难度要比其它翻译更大一些,在翻译时,译者要经常研究它的句子结构,找出各个从句,并理出它们之间的各项逻辑关系。这就使法律翻译和其它翻译显出了不少不同之处。
二、法律翻译的过程
由于法律翻译是一种法律含义的翻译。所以,法律翻译和 其它翻译一样,也包括理解和表达两个过程。如果译者不能理解法律原文,就肯定不能表达原文的含义。理解是表达的基础,没有理解,根本就无从谈表达。特别是 英译汉而言,由于我们是中国人,英语并非是我们的母语,所以在理解英文时就很容易出错。这就要求译者在理解英文原文时要勤查工具书,切不可人云亦云,胡乱 猜测。
然而,并不是说一个译者理解原文后就翻译出一个好的法律文件,译者如要译出一份好的法律文件,还应当具有深厚的译文功底。译者要懂得借用自己掌握的译文知识,运用各种文字技巧将自己理解的原文真实含义表达出来。也就说,译者除了要注重理解外,还要注重表达。
当然,理解和表达这两个过程并没有明显的先后顺序,译者在理解的后可能就已经用译文来表达,而在用译文表达的同时又可能会加深理解。理解和表达是两个互相辅助、互相促进的过程。
三、法律翻译的标准
前面提到,法律翻译的 第一个标准是准确。这一标准是由法律文件的性质所决定的。法律文件的目的是为了保证交易双方当时人的交易安全,所以对法律文件的翻译就也必须能达到这个目 的。这就要求译者在翻译法律文件时做到字字准确,句句意思平等。特别是对英文法律文件中的一些介词,译者更要把其中所隐含的意思给表达出来。译者更应该明 白的是,法律翻译的准确性标准,是指一种中英文法律语言真实含义之间的等同,而不是一种表面上的一种意思对等。即使中英文法律语言之间的表面意思完全一样,但如果真实意思不完全等同,则对于这样的翻译,译者应当完全予以舍弃,而应寻求表达其中的真实含义。
前面也提到,法律翻译的性质是充当一种桥梁和沟通的作用。所以,法律翻译的第二个标准是通顺。也就是说,译者所表达的法律语言应该让其母语是译文的人能看懂,以达到一种沟通的作用,否则法律翻译就没有任何意义。
此外,由于法律语言是一种非常正式的严肃的书面语言,所以译者在表达时应该尽量用正式的书面词语。而且所表达的语言更应该意思严谨,作风严肃,不能 让读者看出破绽和漏洞,更觉得像是在讲故事、写小说。译者所表达的语言就应该是一种法律语言,这种法律语言应该能让读者在读起来时感到义正严肃,觉得应该 对法律文件中所涉及的任何一件事情都应该严肃对待,容不得半点马虎和差错。
四、法律翻译的方法
有些人认为,法律翻译就应该用直译,即使译文不是很通顺,也应该用直译。直译就就是指能讲原文的意思翻译出来,同时又保持原文的风格,而译文又能使读者看得懂。而意译是指译者在不改变原文意思的前提下,完全改变原文的句子结构,而翻译出能让读者看得懂的译文。对这种法律翻译应该用直译而牺牲意译的观点,笔者颇不赞同。大家公认的是,翻译的目的是为了沟通,是为了能让那些其母语是译文的人能看懂译文,如果只顾直译而不管是否通顺、读者是否能看懂,那这样的法律翻译就没有达到法律翻译也是一种沟通的目的。
所以,笔者认为,法律翻译应 该和其它翻译一样,它的翻译方法也是直译和意译并用,即能用直译的时候用直译,不能用直译的时候用意译,用意译的时候不能偏离原文的含义。在翻译法律文件 时,译者不应该受限于哪种翻译方式,而应该根据上下文的意思随时使用任何一种翻译方式。当然,由于法律语言的特殊性,译者在翻译法律语言时,应该尽量接近 原文的语言风格和句式结构。
五、法律翻译的前景
自从中国改革开放依赖,特别是加入WTO以后,中国经济与外国经济的联系越来越紧密,法律翻译的前景也越来越广阔。因为前面提到,中外交易当事人的律师必须编制双语法律文件。而在编制双语法律文件时,律师就不能脱离法律翻译。所以可以这么说,中国与世界上其它国家之间的经济活动有多频繁,法律翻译的前景就有多广阔。
六、如何成为一个好的法律翻译员
同其它翻译一样,如果一个译者要成为一个好的法律翻译,则他必须经过大量的练习。而且,译者还应该掌握大量的翻译技巧(这种翻译技巧在一般的翻译书籍中就能找到)。所以,译者在正式从事法律翻译前,应该多看一些翻译书籍,多研究一些法律翻译实例,以便掌握其中的法律翻译技巧和手段。
译者除了应该掌握一般的法律翻译技巧外,还应该具有相当强的语言能力。因为法律语言,不管是英文法律语言还是中文法律语言,都是一种比较难理解的语言。这就要求译者在平时应该多看一些中文或英文的法律专业书籍,以适应中文或英文的法律语言,并理解和掌握其中的法律词汇和短语。
此外,一个初学法律翻译的人还应该虚心求学,向有多年法律翻译经验的人请教,让他们指导自己如何学习法律翻译,以使自己少走弯路,尽量更快地走到法律翻译成功的彼岸。
二、法律翻译之常用技巧 
一、词义变换
在正常的情况下,并在将原文翻译成译文时,译者只需按照原文中各个词的词典含义就能准确而地道 地把原文翻译成译文。然而,在一些特殊情况下,尽管按照词典含义很意思对等地翻译,但在译文是其母语的人看来,这种译文总会让人觉得别扭,词的表达总是很 不妥当。在这种情况下,译者就必须按照译文的表达习惯,改变词典含义,用地道的译文用词来表达原文作者的真正含义。
1、 Each Party shall have the right to change its legal or authorized representative and shall promptly notify the other Party of such change and the name, position and nationality of its new legal or authorized representative. 
参考译文:双方有权撤换其各自的法定代表人或授权代表,并应将新法定代表人或授权代表的姓名、职位和国籍及时通知另一方。
解释:在原文中的“change”的原意为“变化”,但为了符合中文的表达习惯,将它翻译成“撤换”。
2、The Company may establish branch offices inside China and overseas with the consent of the Board and approval from the relevant governmental authorities. 
参考译文:合营公司经董事会决议并经有关政府机关批准可在国内外成立分支机构。
解释:原文中“consent”的愿意为“同意”,但为了中文法律语言的表达习惯,在译文中将其翻译为“决议”。
3、The purpose of the joint venture shall be to utilize the combined technological, management, operational and marketing strengths of the Parties within the approved scope of business of the Company to achieve good economic results and a return on investment satisfactory to the Parties.
参考译文:合营公司的宗旨是结合双方在技术、管理、运营以及营销方面的优势,在合营公司经批准的经营范围内开展业务,以取得良好的经济效益以及令双方满意的投资回报。
解释:原文中的“strength”的愿意为“实力,力量”,但在译文中,为了符合中文表达习惯的需要,它被改翻译为“优势”。
4、Subject to Article 5.4(c) below, in the event that a Party fails to make its capital contribution, in whole or in part, in accordance with the provisions of this Contract, such Party shall be liable to pay simple interest to the Company at a rate equal to [default interest rate] per annum on the unpaid amount from the time due until the time the full outstanding amount including penalty interest is paid to and received by the Company.
参考译文:在遵循以下第5.4(c)条规定的前提下,如果一方未依照本合同的条款全额或部分出资,则该方应就欠缴的出资额按年利率[ ]的单利向合营公司支付罚息,计息期为该笔出资的应缴日期至该笔出资及罚息全额支付,并由合营公司收到之日。
解释:原文中的“unpaid”一词的愿意是“未支付”,但在译文中被按照中文法律语言的习惯翻译成了“欠缴”。
5、When a Party has made all or any part of its contribution to the registered capital of the Company, a Chinese registered accountant appointed by the Board shall verify such contribution and issue a capital contribution verification report in the form required under Applicable Laws.
参考译文:一方向合营公司部分或全部出资后,由董事会聘请的中国注册会计师验资并按照相关法律要求的形式出具验资报告。
解释:原文中的“appointed”在译文中被按照中文的表达习惯改翻译为“聘请”。
 
 
 
法律翻译技巧 1
 
第一部分 词典 5
 
第二部分 格式 5
 
第三部分 序文 7
 
第四部分 定义 12
 
第六部分 格式条款 21
 
第七部分 合同结尾句 32
 
第八部分 签字部分 33
 
 
 
 
第一部分 词典 
 
1 书面词典 ( Black’s Law Dictionary 等) 
2 金山词霸 或者 stardict 等词典,需要装一个(视个人情况),作为词汇查询时的词义参考。 
3 Google 搜索 
3.1. 双引号的使用(限定在连续表述) 
3.2. 通配符“ * ”的使用 
3.3. site:.us 的使用(确定某国网站,找地道说法) 
3.4. filetype:doc 的使用 ( pdf 文件,相对正式些) 
3.5. 图片查询功能的使用(用于英译汉中,确定物品) 
3.6. 注意引导词的使用:有时可能猜出相关译文后,去掉原文,然后进行查询。 
举例: 1 )英译汉 (提前给学生自己搜索) A) Code of Practice for Precast Concrete Construction 2003 ( 上课前自己先在网上试一下是否可以直接查到,然后再决定是否发给学生(直接可以查到的没有意义) ) 参考搜索结果: 2003 年预制混凝土建造守则 (通过 “ 2003 预制混凝土 ” 搜索出来,来自 “ 香港屋宇署 ” 网站 http://www.bd.gov.hk/chineseT/documents/index_crlist.html ) 
3.7. 其他的,包括上述几项功能,均可在网上搜到。 
4 Lawspirit 词典: www.lawspirit.net 
5 Findlaw 词典: http://dictionary.lp.findlaw.com ;
6 law.com 词典 : Http://dictionary.law.com ;
 
第二部分 格式 
 
1、 格式的重要性 
法律是严肃的,法律文件当然也是。严肃不仅体现在语言、内容上,文件格式是其中首要,而且非常重要的一方面。在法律翻译中,译文格式的好坏,占整个翻译的比重是很大的。有时,如果不按照原文格式排版,会让客户无法看懂译文。所以首先要把格式调整好。 
2、 具体步骤 
第一步 :如何与原文保持一致?: 
第一种情况 : 1 ) 原文为 word 等可编辑文档的:(如果是用翻译软件进行翻译,则不存在这一问题) 
a) 将原文另存为一个新的文档(目的:保留原文,已备翻译完毕后自己校对); 
b) 在该段后面或者前面(视个人习惯)翻译后,将原文删除。 
这样做的好处: 如果没有使用翻译软件,这样做可以保留原文格式,部分省却翻译后排版。 
第二种情况: 2 )原文为 pdf 文档的,格式上就比较麻烦一些。 
a) 可以转化,且转化后效果比较好的保留了原文格式的,按上述第一种情况的步骤翻译即可。 
b) 可以转化,但转化后效果没有较好保留原文格式的,翻完后要按照原文再进行排版。 
c) 不能转化的,只能自己在 word 文档中输入译文。翻译完后,或者在翻译过程中(视个人情况而定)按照原文格式排版。 
第二步 :翻译完以后的格式调整。 
1) 统一字体 (整个稿件的字体,大小,颜色等等方面) 
有出现过以下情况:从哪个网站上拷贝下来的内容(词汇或者特定名称),颜色是红色等其他颜色,字体也不一样,却没有与全文统一。 
2) “两端对齐”(正文内容) 
3) “标尺”:如果是 pdf 转化的纯文本文档,可能还需要用“标尺”来调整页面的内容(主要是,页边距,表格等) 
4) 其他 :其他方面的格式调整,就看自己了。核心是:稿子要整洁,漂亮。 
3、 注意事项: 
3.1. E-C: paragraph, article, section 都可能表示“条”,根据上下文确定具体含义 
3.1.1. Paragraph: 
举例: 
9. RIGHT OF TERMINATION BY Party B 
(a) PARTY B shall have the right to terminate this Agreement, upon 15 days written notice to Party A if: 
(i) …………………… ; 
(ii) …………………….. 
(iii) ………………………; or 
(iv) ……………………. 
(b) Upon termination of the Contract under this Paragraph 9 in any Contract Year, Party A shall accelerate and immediately pay to PARTY B any unpaid Guaranteed Minimum Compensation and unpaid Royalty Payment, whether or not the date for such payment has occurred… …………. 
3.1.2. Section: 
举例 : 
Section 21 
Governing Law 
21.1 The validity, interpretation and performance of this Agreement shall be exclusively determined in accordance with the laws of [ ]. 
例 1 S ub ject to the ter m s and conditions o f th i s Agreement (includin g , without li m itation, Article 3 ), the Licensing Ad m inistrator hereby grants to Licensee who (i) ***** (ii) ********. NO OTHER LICENSE IS GRANTED IN T H IS SECTION 2.5 , BY IMPLICATION OR OTHERWISE. 
3.2. C-E: 汉语中大写“一、”的英译。 
(如果有人问如何翻译,回答:看上下语境。提供两种选择:大写罗马数字;用表示“条”的英文单词代替。) 
3.3. 合同中目录的翻译(一般大的合同中才会出现): 
1) 错误做法: 在原稿目录上面直接翻译。 
原因: 这样的合同中,目录多为自动生成格式,有对应页码。直接在原稿目录上翻译的话,页码就对应不上,这样翻出来也没有意义。 
2) 正确做法: 
a. 译文完成后,自动生成目录( 推荐 ) 
b. 译文中不加目录( 不推荐) 
3.4. word 中表格的使用: 
1) 原文中签字部分的双方或者几方当事人是并排排列,但一行内放不下的情况。 
举例: 
甲方:北京京都会计师事务所 乙方: 有限责任公司 
代表签字: 代表签字: 
3.5. 页眉、页脚、脚注 / 尾注 (与发稿人确认,有的不要求翻译)等,如果有的话,也要翻译。 
1) 页眉 
Pdf 或者扫描文件翻译中,同一文档有不同页眉的,如何处理。 
2) 页脚 
A) 页脚中的“ Page * of * ”,“第 * 页 共 * 页”要翻译。 
B) 页脚中的“ G:6878200532404ReportSpecMain Con - Precast Concrete Unit.doc ”类似表述,不需要翻译。 
原因 : 此为律所或者公司存放该文件的地址,翻了,客户反到迷惑。 
3) 脚注 / 尾注的插入和翻译 
a. 错误做法: 自己在正文中插入数字,将数字设置成上下标,然后在页面最下端(或者文章最后)输入脚注 / 尾注正文的译文,将字体调至相应字号。 
b. 正确做法: word 有脚注 / 尾注插入功能,自动插入即可, word 会自动编号。 
第三部分 序文 
Preamble :序文 ; Recital :鉴于条款 
一、 服务合同序文 
This Agreement , effective 【 date 】 , by and between 【】 Inc. , a Delaware corporation, having a principal place of business at 【】 . ( hereinafter “ABC”), and 【 name 】 , having a place of business at 【 address 】 (hereinafter “COMPANY”). 
   
Whereas , COMPANY has expertise in the specific field identified in Exhibits A and B; and 
Whereas , ABC desires to engage the services of COMPANY for the purpose of performing the services for ABC as described in Exhibits A and B; and 
Whereas , COMPANY declares that it is engaged in an independent business and has complied with all federal, state and local laws regarding business permits and licenses of any kind that may be required to carry out the said business and the tasks to be performed under this Agreement. 
  
Now Therefore , in consideration of the premises and the mutual promises and undertakings herein contained, the parties hereto agree as follows: 
参考译文: 
本服务协议(下文简称 “ 本协议 ” )由下列双方当事人订立于 【 生效日期 】 : 
【】 , Inc. ,美国特拉华州公司,主营业所位于【】 (下文简称 “ABC” ), 
  和 
【】 (公司名称),营业所位于 【】 ,(下文简称 “ 公司 ” ) 
鉴于, “ 公司 ” 在附件 A 和附件 B 所载明领域拥有专业知识;且 
鉴于, ABC 拟委请 “ 公司 ” 为 ABC 提供附件 A 和附件 B 所列明的服务项目;且 
鉴于, “ 公司 ” 声明其从事的是独立业务,且其已经根据联邦、州及地方相关法律取得了从事该项业务以及本协议项下业务活动所必需的全部经营许可和执照。 
据此,基于本协议所载之前提及双方在本协议项下所做的相互承诺与保证,双方在此达成下列一致意见: 
(一)、合同序文词汇 
1 、 Preamble : 序文 ; 两个词都表示序文 / 序言,但在英文合同对其有明确区分时,要知道如何翻译; 
Recital : 鉴于条款 
2 、 Effective date 1 )问题 在这里是做什么用途,翻译时如何处理?(实为:合同撰写人的“提示词”用于在这里填入合同的“生效日期”,即这个词,将来是要被某个具体日期取代的。) 
2 )如何判断 a) 背景为灰色 
此即表明作者要特别注明,此时就应引起注意;(注:不同作者,会用不同的方法标注。其他如【】、 [] 、不同颜色等); 
b) 即便现在不能确定标灰的意图,接下来的翻译中也要留心是否有同样或者类似的标记,通篇上下分析。
c) 核心:是上下文。 
1 、 hereto : the parties hereto : 双方 
principal place of business; principal office; place of business; registered office ; correspondence office : 总部(主营业地);营业地;注册地址(注册办事处);通讯地址 
Hereinafter ; hereto; thereto; thereof; hereunder 等等 以下简称 
2 、 exhibit; appendix(appendices); schedule; annex : 附件,附录 
需要进行详细区分 
3 、 whereas : 鉴于 
4 、 identify : 列明,载明 
5 、 desire : 拟 
6 、 engage: 雇用 
7 、 engage in: 从事 
9 、 services ** as described as 这一用法,有待查询,并总结 
9 、 declare: 声明 
10 、 representations and warranties : 陈述与保证 
11 、 misrespresentation : 不正确说明;虚假陈述 
12 、 regarding : 关于 (还有: with respect to; 等等)举例 
13 、 that may be required to : 所必需的;并非所有的 required 都翻译成“必需的”,视语境(上下文)决定。 
14 under : 根据 
举例: 1 [•], a corporation existing under and by virtue of [•] Act, with its principal office at [•] (“Company A”); 
15 pursuant to; in accordance with; comply with; in conformity/conformance with; to conform to : in conformity with :遵守 与其他几个的用法稍有不同 
举例: The parties shall deliver the various instruments and documents required to be delivered pursuant to Section 9 and Section 10, and each party shall provide the other such customary certificates (such as certificates of good standing) as the other shall reasonably request in connection with the First Closing. 【 Source: Master Agreement 】 
If any provision of this Agreement is or becomes or is deemed to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any jurisdiction, (a) such provision shall be deemed amended to conform to applicable law of such jurisdiction so as to be valid and enforceable,….. 【 Source: Article 14.1 of Service Agreement 】 
The parties shall not change their existing Will, if any, or make a new will at this time, but any new Will executed shall be in conformance with the provisions of this agreement. 【 Resoure: Article 3 of Non-marital Cohabitation Agreement 】 参考译文: 协议双方不得变更其已经存在的现有遗嘱(如果有)或在此制定新遗嘱,即使要制定新遗嘱,也应依照协议的规定 . 
Each Party shall advise its directors, senior staff, and other employees and those of its Affiliates receiving such information of the existence of and the importance of complying with the obligations set forth in paragraph (a) above. 参考译文: 每一方均应告知其董事,高级职员和其它雇员及其收到此种信息的关联公司之此类人员上述( A )款所设定的义务及遵守这些义务的重要性。 
二、 
例子 1 、 This Subscription Agreement is made and entered on the __ April 2006 (“Signing Date”) by and between : 
参考译文:本股票认购协议 由以下各方于 2006 年 4 月【】日(“签订日期”) 签署 : 
这两个词的具体含义,视合同中的定义(语境)而定。 
1. 
This Concession Agreement (as amended from time to time, this “Agreement”) is dated as of the [ • ] day of [ • ] , 2007 
Between 
1. [ • ] , a corporation existing under and by virtue of [ • ] Act, with its principal office at [ • ] (“Company A”); 
2. [ • ] , a government owned and controlled corporation duly created by [ • ] Act, with its principal office at [ • ] (“Company B”); and 
3. [ • ] , a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of [ • ] , with its principal office at [ • ] ([ • ] or the “Concessionaire”), 
collectively referred to as the “Parties” and each individually referred to as a “Party” 
Whereas, 
A. by virtue of its authority under Section 21 of [ • ] Act, and its Implementing Rules and Regulations, Company A has selected the consortium of [ • ] , [ • ] and [ • ] (collectively, the “Investors”), through open competitive bidding, for the award of a concession to construct, install, finance, manage, improve, expand, operate, maintain, rehabilitate, repair and refurbish the Transmission Grid ; and 
B. the Investors have established the Concessionaire in accordance with the Direct Agreement dated [ • ] between Company A and the Investors . 
参考译文:本特许经营协议 ( 不时修订版, 以下称 “本协议” ) 由下述双方于 2007 年 [ • ] 月 [ • ] 日签署: 
1. 公司 A, 一家按照 [ • ] 法之规定设立并存续的公司,其总部设在 [ • ] ( 以下称 “ 公司 A”) ; 
2. 公司 B , 一家按照 [ • ] 之规定正式设立、为政府所有并控制的公司,其总部设在 [ • ] ( 以下称 “ 公司 B”) ;和 
3. [ • ] , 一家根据【】法律正式组建并存续的公司,其主营业所位于 [ • ] ( 以下称 [ • ] 或者“特许经营公司” ) ,  
合称为“各方”,单称为“一方” 
鉴于, 
A. 根据【】法令第 21 条所授予之权力及该法令实施细则之规定, 公司 A 已通过公开竞标方式选中由 [ • ] , [ • ] 和 [ • ] 共同组成的联合体(并称为“投资方”),并授予该联合体从事建设,安装,管理,改进,扩容,运营,维护,振兴,修理及整修输电网之特许经营权;且 
B. 投资方业已根据公司 A 与投资方于 [ • ] 订立的直接协议设立了特许经营公司。 
第一部分(绿色)为: preamble (序文) ; 第二部分(紫色)为: recital (鉴于条款) 
例3. Now, therefore , in consideration of the foregoing recitals and the respective covenants and agreements contained herein, the Parties set forth the terms and conditions of the concession: 
参考译文: 据此,各方基于上述事实及各方在本协议项下所作的承诺和约定,就特许经营事宜订立如下条款,以兹共同信守: 
举例 1 、: NOW THEREFORE, in consideration of the Holder’s entering into the Credit Agreement and of the agreements and covenants therein and herein, and for other good and valuable consideration, the receipt and sufficiency of which are hereby acknowledged, the parties hereto agree as follows: 
参考译文: 因此,基于持有人签署上述《信贷协议》和该《信贷协议》以及本协 议项下的各项约定和保证,以及各方在此确认 收讫并确认充分的其他其它良好 且有价值的 (有待查找王军的“美国合同法”后,进一步修改) 对价,协议双方现达成如下协议,以资信守: 
举例 2 、: NOW , THEREFORE, in consideration of the foregoing and the mutual promises contained herein and other good and valuable consideration, the receipt and sufficiency of which are hereby acknowledged, Party A and PARTY B intending to be legally bound, agree as follows: 
基于上述事实及本合同所包含的相互承诺及双方在此确认收讫并确认充分的其他良好且有价值的对价,甲方和乙方达成协议如下,以资信守: 
三、 其他注意事项 
1、 C-E 
1、 双方当事人不要弄反。 (这种情况不仅指序文中,还经常会出现在正文部分) 
这种情况多出现在 CE 中,甲方乙方 (Party A/Party B) ,许可人和被许可人 ( licenser/licensee ),出租人和承租人( landlord/tenant )。 
2、 信件 抬头 中的“ Our Ref:…….. ”及“ Your Ref:...... ” 以及“ Re: ” 的翻译 
这是律所的卷号,每个律所都会对一个案子或者客户有书面或者电子存卷。翻译成中文当然就是“我方卷号: ….. ”和“你方卷号: …… ” 
举例 2 、 : 
Our Ref: 
Dear 
Re: 
Further to ……………………………………………… ……. 
…………………………………………………………………. 
参考译文 : 
我方卷号: 
敬启者: 
关于: 
兹提及 …………………………………………. 

第四部分 定义
一、 本合同中没有单另定义条款 
二、 其他注意事项 
1、 Construction 
(1) 如果作为标题,出现在定义部分,其含义是什么。 
a. 先让学生自己说出这个词的意思,看是否能说对。说不对的,进入 (b) 。 
b. 应当为 “ 解释,释义 ” 的意思。在这里跟 “ 结构 ” 无关。 
(2) 一定要根据上下文确定词的含义,根据你的现有知识,感觉有任何不脱的,一定要查词典,多方对比考虑后再翻译;查完词典仍然拿不准的,在译文中标出,便于阅稿人阅读。切不可望文生义,想当然。 
2、 As amended 用在法律名称后面时的翻译。 
例如: “Code” means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended . 
有人译为: “ 法典 ” 是指 1986 年《国内税收法典》 及修订本 。 

第五部分 实体条款 
 
这一部分正在整理中,目前尚没有系统结构,仅提出几个具体问题,供大家参考。 
一、 服务合同条款 
Section 1 - Services    
1.1 ABC hereby retains COMPANY to provide the services outlined in Exhibits A and B which are incorporated and made a part of this Agreement (the “Services”).    
1.2 COMPANY hereby accepts the obligations contained in this Agreement and subject to terms and conditions hereinafter set forth agrees to provide the Services.    
1.3 COMPANY shall also provide additional services specified in any future exhibit which may be agreed to between the parties in writing and subsequently incorporated into this Agreement. If ABC wishes to change the scope of the Services covered by this Agreement or wishes to obtain additional services not initially covered by this Agreement and/or not listed in an Exhibit, ABC shall so advise COMPANY and shall submit specifications to COMPANY. After receipt of the specifications, COMPANY shall promptly provide ABC with a cost estimate for performing the changed or additional services. Each work assignment shall be governed by the terms and conditions of this Agreement and by such supplementary written amendments of this Agreement or Exhibits as may be , from time to time, executed between the parties. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and an Exhibit, the terms of this Agreement shall govern.    
1.4 All Services and reporting on the results of the services provided by COMPANY hereunder shall be conducted in accordance with the applicable provisions of applicable federal, states and local laws, regulations and ordinances.    
1.5 If requested by ABC, COMPANY shall provide ABC with a certificate evidencing their accreditation by the appropriate accrediting body. Such accreditation shall remain in force during the period of this Agreement. 
参考译文: 
第一条 服务项目 
1.1 ABC 在此聘请“公司”向其提供附件 A 和附件 B (附件 A 和附件 B 构成本协议不可分割之一部分)所列明的服务项目(下文简称为服务项目)。 
1.2 “公司”在此接受本协议项下之义务提供服务项目,并同意遵守本协议条款。 
1.3 若本协议双方当事人在将来就额外的服务项目达成书面同意,并以附件列明该额外服务项目并将此附件作为本协议之一部分,则“公司”应当提供前述的额外服务项 目。若 ABC 公司拟变更本协议所涉服务项目之范围或增加本协议项下之服务项目内容或增加附件中没有包括的新服务项目, ABC 公司应当通知“公司”并且应当将详细内容提供给“公司”。收到该新增服务详细内容之后,“公司”应当迅速向 ABC 公司提供一份变更服务或增加服务项目的成本预计清单。所有工作项目应当受本协议条款以及双方当事人随时签署的本协议书面补充协议以及附件的制约。若本协议 条款与其附件条款有抵触,则应以本协议条款为准。 
1.4 “公司”提供所有服务项目以及报告其提供的服务项目结果,应当遵守适用的联邦的,州立的和地方法律,法规和法令中适用的规定。 
1.5 应 ABC 公司的要求,“公司”应当向 ABC 公司提供能够证明其由相关鉴定机构鉴定合格的证明书。该证明书在本协议有效期间内应当完全有效。 
Section 2 - Compensation And Expenses    
2.1 ABC shall pay COMPANY, and COMPANY agrees to accept for the services to be performed under this Agreement, compensation as specified in Exhibit B. ABC shall not be required to pay any sum in excess of ____________. This sum is the maximum amount due under this Agreement for COMPANY work during the term of this Agreement except for reasonable travel expenses as specified in subsection 2.2, unless agreed otherwise in writing by the parties. Travel time is not compensable.    
2.2 Upon receipt by ABC of copies of receipts or other appropriate evidence of expenditures by COMPANY, ABC shall reimburse COMPANY for reasonable travel expenses (coach class airfare, ground transportation, lodging and meals) incurred by COMPANY at the request of ABC in rendering services hereunder.    
2.3 COMPANY’s federal I.D. or social security number is as specified in Exhibit B. It is agreed that COMPANY is responsible for the payment of any taxes. ABC will report payments made to COMPANY as required by applicable federal, state or local tax law or regulations. 
参考译文: 
第二条 酬金和费用 
2.1 基于“公司”在本协议项下所提供的服务项目, ABC 公司应当向“公司”支付附件 B 所列明数额的酬金,同时“公司”同意接受该酬金。 ABC 公司所应支付的酬金总额不得超过 USD 美元。除非本协议双方当事人另有书面约定,该金额为“公司”在本协议有效期间内提供服务项目的最高酬金,本协议 2.2 款所列的合理差旅费用另计。对差旅所耗时间,不作另行补偿。 
2.2 ABC 公司收到“公司”送交的收据复印件或其它相关开支证明后,应当立即将“公司”按照 ABC 公司要求提供本协议项下服务项目而产生的合理差旅费(经济舱飞机票,地面交通费,住宿费,餐费)补偿给“公司”。 
2.3 “公司”的联邦身份证号码或社会保险号如附件 B 所示。本协议双方当事人同意:“公司”应当承担各项税金。 ABC 公司应当按照适用的联邦,州和地方税法或法规,将其向“公司”支付的款项进行申报。 
Section 3 - Confidentiality    
3.1 With respect to any and all information acquired by COMPANY from ABC as a result of this Agreement or from performance of the Services to be rendered hereunder , including, but not limited to, information meaning, referring, relating or pertaining to the nature and existence of the parties’ business relationship, and any information developed during or arising from or in connection with such business collaboration (hereinafter “Confidential Information”), COMPANY agrees that it will not use said Confidential Information other than for the purposes of this Agreement, and it will not disclose any of said Confidential Information to any third party except to those of its employees and agents who need to know such Confidential Information and from whom COMPANY has secured agreement to be bound by the confidentiality obligations thereof , for a period of five (5) years; the foregoing obligation shall not apply to Confidential Information: (a) which can be shown to have been known to COMPANY prior to its receipt from ABC; (b) which is or lawfully becomes generally known to the public; (c) which is lawfully acquired from third parties who have a right to disclose such Confidential Information; (d) which by mutual agreement is released from a confidential status; and (e) which COMPANY is required by law to release, provided that ABC is given advance written notice of such requirement by COMPANY so that ABC may contest or limit such release.    
3.2 The terms of this Section 3, and the parties’ obligations hereunder , shall survive termination or expiration of this Agreement and the completion of COMPANY’s Services hereunder . 
第三条 保密条款 
3.1 对于由 ABC 公司因本协议提供给 “ 公司 ” 的所有信息资料,以及由于提供本协议项下服务项目而由 “ 公司 ” 获取的所有信息资料, 包括但不限于与本协议双方当事人业务关系有关的任何信息资料,以及任何在双方当事人业务协作期间开发的信息资料(下文统称为 “ 保密资料 ” ), “ 公司 ” 同意:在五年之内, “ 公司 ” 决不将前述 “ 保密资料 ” 用于本协议目的之外的任何目的,决不将保密资料披露给任何第三方, “ 公司 ” 仅将保密资料提供给需要知道该等保密资料的雇员或代理人,并且 “ 公司 ” 已经与获取该保密资料的雇员或代理人签订了保密协议;但是前述保密义务不适用于下列资料: (a) 有证据显示在 ABC 公司向 “ 公司 ” 提供保密资料之前, “ 公司 ” 已经获得了该保密资料; (b) 公众领域内的资料或合法进入公众领域的资料; (c) 以合法的方式从有权披露该保密资料的第三方获取的保密资料; (d) 本协议双方当事人同意解除保密状态的资料; (e) “ 公司 ” 应法律要求披露的保密资料,但 “ 公司 ” 应当将该法律要求提前以书面形式通知 ABC 公司,以便 ABC 公司可以反对或限制该等披露。 
3.2 本协议第三条各条款以及各方在该条项下之保密义务,在本协议终止或届满以及 “ 公司 ” 完成服务项目之后继续有效。 
   
Section 4 - Term And Termination    
4.1 This Agreement shall be effective from the date shown above and shall thereafter remain in full force and effect until completion of the Services provided herein , or pursuant to any subsequent Exhibit hereto , whichever is later.    
4.2 In the event that either party commits a breach or default in any of the terms or conditions of this Agreement and that party fails to remedy that default or breach within thirty (30) days after receipt of notice of that breach from the other party, the party giving notice may, at its option terminate this Agreement by sending written notice of termination to the other party. ABC, however, shall have the right to terminate this Agreement (for other than default or breach by COMPANY) at any time by giving appropriate written notice at thirty (30) days prior to the desired termination date. Upon receipt of notice of termination, COMPANY shall cease performance of the Services unless requested otherwise by ABC. The obligations of COMPANY under Sections 3, 8 and 12 of this Agreement will survive termination of this Agreement.    
4.3 All data and other information 【 Think about tailoring the data here to specifics of the Agreement 】 resulting from the Services shall be the sole property of ABC and shall be subject to ABC’s exclusive use, commercial or otherwise.    
4.4 Upon the termination of this Agreement or the Services for any reason, promptly upon request from ABC, (i) COMPANY shall immediately deliver to ABC (or, at ABC’s direction, destroy) any and all data, documents, designs, results, work product and deliverables (whether complete or not), works-in-progress, and other information resulting from or related to the Services, and (ii) ABC shall immediately return to COMPANY (or, at COMPANY’s direction, destroy) any data, documents and other information containing COMPANY’s Confidential Information that are unrelated to the Services, the work product, deliverables, or the work performed under this Agreement. 
第四条 协议有效期间和协议终止 
4.1 本协议自序文所载之日期生效,至本协议项下之服务项目完成时终止,或者按照本协议附件规定终止(以其中较迟者为准)。 
4.2 若本协议任何一方违反本协议任何条款,并且在收到对方当事人相关通知之日起三十( 30 )日内未对其违约行为采取补救措施,则发出该通知的一方有权自行向对方发送书面通知,终止本协议。另外, ABC 公司有权随时终止本协议,但应当在其期望的终止日期三十( 30 )日前以书面形式通知对方( “ 公司 ” 违约的除外)。 “ 公司 ” 一旦收到终止通知,应当立即停止提供服务项目, ABC 另有要求的除外。 “ 公司 ” 在本协议第三条,第八条和第十二条项下的义务在本协议终止之后仍然有效。 
4.3 由服务项目所产生的所有数据和其他信息资料一律属于 ABC 公司的财产,仅由 ABC 公司独家使用,包括用于商业和其它目的。 
4.4 本协议或本协议项下之服务项目无论由于任何原因终止之后,经 ABC 公司要求, (i) “ 公司 ” 应当立即将由服务项目产生的或与服务项目有关的所有数据,文件,设计,生成物,工作产品和其它应交付物品(包括最终完成的和尚未完成的),未完工作品和其 它资料交还给 ABC 公司,或者按照 ABC 公司的要求销毁; (ii) ABC 公司应当将含有 “ 公司 ” 保密资料的,但是与本协议项下服务项目、工作产品,应交付物品或本协议项下工作无关的数据,文件和其他资料立即归还给 “ 公司 ” (或应 “ 公司 ” 要求销毁)。 
   
Section 5 - Publicity And Publication    
5.1 COMPANY may not disclose that ABC has retained COMPANY for professional services unless ABC specifically agrees in writing that such disclosure may be made.    
5.2 Such limitations shall not apply to disclosures which ABC or COMPANY is required by law to make.    
5.3 COMPANY shall not (a) publicize in any form, including but not limited to the delivery of results or reports to third parties; the results, its report or any part thereof ; (b) use or cause to be used such results or report for the purpose of initiation of claims, legal proceedings, advertisements, public relations or marketing. 
第五条 宣传和公布 
5.1 “ 公司 ” 不得披露 ABC 公司已经聘请“公司 ” 提供专业服务项目, ABC 公司明确以书面形式同意“公司 ” 披露的情况除外。 
5.2 若法律要求 ABC 公司或 “ 公司 ” 进行上述披露,则上述限制不适用。 
5.3 “ 公司 ” 不得 (a) 以任何方式、形式将成果或报告或其任何部分给予任何第三方; (b) 将前述成果或报告用于或者促成他人用于启动索赔、法律程序、广告、公共关系或营销活动。 
   
Section 6 - Independent Contractor    
6.1 COMPANY shall perform the Services under this Agreement only as an independent contractor, and nothing contained herein shall be construed to be inconsistent with that relationship or status. COMPANY, its employees, and agents shall not be considered employees or agents of ABC. This Agreement shall not constitute, create, or in any way be interpreted as, a joint venture, partnership, or business organization of any kind. 
第六条 独立承包商 
6.1 “ 公司 ” 应当以独立承包商的身份履行本协议项下的服务项目,本协议不产生任何其它与此关系或地位不符的关系。 “ 公司 ” ,以及其雇员和代理人不得被视为 ABC 公司的雇员或代理人。本协议不构成、创设或以任何方式解释为任何合资企业,合伙或其它商业组织。 
   
Section 7 - Force Majeure    
7.1 Neither ABC nor COMPANY shall be liable for delays in performing or any failure to perform any of the terms of this Agreement caused by the effects of fire, strike, war (declared or undeclared), insurrection, government restriction or prohibition, force majeure or other causes reasonably beyond its control and without its fault, but the party failing to perform shall use all reasonable efforts to resume performance of this Agreement as soon as feasible. Any episode of force majeure which continues for forty-five (45) days from the date of notification of its existence shall give the non-affected party the right to terminate this agreement upon fifteen (15) days additional written notice. 
第七条 不可抗力 
7.1 若本协议任何一方当事人由于火灾,罢工,战争(无论是否经过宣战),暴动,政府管制或禁止,不可抗力或其它无法合理控制并且自身没有过错的情况,而无法履 行或迟延履行本协议的任何条款,则该方对此不承担责任,但是,遭遇前述事件的一方应当采取所有合理措施在可行的情况下尽快恢复履行本协议。若前述不可抗力 事件自通知存在之日起延续四十五( 45 )日,则非遭遇该事件的一方有权终止本协议,但是应当提前十五( 15 )日通知对方当事人。 
   
Section 8 - Patents, Rights In Work Product And Trade Secrets    
8.1 COMPANY hereby grants to ABC all right, title and interest in and to any invention, discovery, or improvement conceived or reduced to practice in connection with the Services performed hereunder by COMPANY’s officers, employees, representatives, and agents. COMPANY will keep and have its officers, employees, representatives and agents keep signed, witnessed, and dated written records of all such inventions, discoveries, or improvements, and will furnish ABC promptly with complete information in respect thereof , and will do all things necessary to protect the interest of ABC therein at ABC’s expense. With respect to patent applications filed by ABC, COMPANY agrees to promptly execute and have executed assignments thereof to ABC and any papers that ABC may consider necessary or helpful in such prosecution, or which may relate to any litigation or interference and/or controversy in connection therewith . The entire control, prosecution, and conduct of any patent application filed by ABC shall be outside the jurisdiction of and without expense to COMPANY and its officers, employees, representatives and agents. COMPANY acknowledges that ABC has the exclusive right to file patent applications in connection with the Services provided herein and with any inventions, discoveries or improvements made pursuant to the Agreement. COMPANY warrants that neither itself nor its employees, agents and representatives will prevent ABC in any way from filing patent applications or from applying the results of the Services carried out hereunder.    
8.2 All drawings, reports, designs, data, protocols, results of analysis, technical information, original works of authorship and all other information emanating from the performance of the Services rendered hereunder or any additional services subsequently agreed upon are works for hire and shall be reported to ABC and become its sole property.    
8.3 It is mutually agreed and understood that COMPANY has the right to enter into this Agreement and will not disclose to nor use for the benefit of ABC any trade secrets of another party in the performance of the Services under this Agreement.    
8.4 COMPANY’s agreements with its officers, employees, representatives and agents will contain appropriate terms to effectuate the provisions of this Section 8, and Section 3, of this Agreement.    
8.5 Notwithstanding the foregoing, COMPANY shall retain ownership rights in and to all calculation methods, software programs, methods of analysis and investigation used by COMPANY to provide the Services.    
8.6 In case of publication by ABC of all or part of the results of analysis carried out by COMPANY, ABC shall not use COMPANY’s name, logo or trademarks, without its prior written consent. 
第八条 专利权,工作成果权利和商业秘密 
8.1 “公司”在此将“公司”管理人员、雇员、代表和代理人按照本协议所履行的服务项目有关的发明,发现或改进中包含的所有权利,所有权和利益全部授予 ABC 公司。“公司”将保存所有经过签署的、亲历的、标注日期的关于前述发明,发现,改进的记录,并且将确保其管理人员、雇员、代表和代理人保存前述记录;“公 司”将迅速向 ABC 公司提供与该等记录相关的完整资料,并采取一切必要措施保护 ABC 公司在其中的利益,但是由此所产生的费用应当由 ABC 公司承担。对于由 ABC 公司提出的专利申请,“公司”同意将及时签署或促成他人签署相应的转让文件以及 ABC 认为对该申请必需的或有帮助的其他文件,或者与该专利申请相关的任何诉讼,干涉和(或)纠纷有关的任何文件,并将前述的文件递交与 ABC 公司。“公司”及其管理人员、雇员、代表和代理人一律无权涉及 ABC 公司提交的任何专利申请的整体控制和过程,也一律无须承担由此产生的任何费用。“公司”承认:就本协议项下之服务项目以及按照本协议所产生的发明,发现和 改进, ABC 公司拥有独家权利提出专利申请。“公司”保证“公司”本身及其管理人员、雇员、代表和代理人不得以任何方式阻碍 ABC 公司提出专利申请或使用本协议项下服务项目的成果。 
8.2 基于本协议项下提供的服务项目或双方当事人随后同意的额外服务项目所产生的所有图纸,报告,设计,数据,草案,分析结果,技术资料,具有明确作者的原始作品以及其它一切资料,仅供出租,并且均应当向 ABC 公司报告,并成为 ABC 公司独有的财产。 
8.3 双方当事人同意并一致理解:“公司”有权订立本协议,并且在履行本协议的过程中,“公司”不得将第三方的商业秘密披露给 ABC 公司,也不得将其用于为 ABC 公司牟利。 
8.4 “公司”与其管理人员、雇员、代表和代理人应当包含实施本协议第八条,第三条规定的条款。 
8.5 尽管有上述规定,对于“公司”应用于服务项目的所有计算方式,软件程序,分析研究方法,“公司”有权继续拥有所有权。 
8.6 若 ABC 公司出版或公布“公司”所作的分析结果,无论是全部或部分内容,未经“公司”事先书面同意, ABC 公司不得使用“公司”的标识或商标。 
   
Section 9 – Liability, Warranty and Indemnification    
9.1 COMPANY shall be liable for the reimbursement of actual, proven and direct expenses incurred by ABC solely as a result of COMPANY’s negligence or willful misconduct in the performance of the Services hereunder , provided, however, that ABC demonstrates such actual and direct expenses by competent proof. In no event shall COMPANY be liable for special or consequential damages.    
9.2 COMPANY shall use its best efforts when selecting a subcontractor and ABC shall have the right to approve any subcontractor. In the event ABC is not satisfied with any subcontractor used by COMPANY at any time, it shall have the right to a replacement.    
9.3 COMPANY represents, warrants and covenants that: (i) the Services to be provided hereunder shall be performed in accordance with professional standards, shall meet the descriptions provided in Exhibit “A”, and shall be free from material errors or other defects; (ii) the work product and deliverables provided to ABC hereunder , ABC’s use of same, and the Services provided hereunder do not and will not infringe or violate any patent, copyright, trademark, trade secret, mask work or other proprietary or ownership right of any third party; (iii) COMPANY has the right to provide the Services and grant Client the rights granted herein , without the need for any assignments, releases, consents, approvals, immunities or other rights not yet obtained; (iv) COMPANY has the full power to enter into this Agreement and to perform its obligations hereunder ; (v) the performance of the Services shall be in compliance with any and all applicable laws and regulations; and (vi) ABC shall receive free, good and clear title to all work product and deliverables. 
9.4 COMPANY shall indemnify, hold harmless and defend ABC and ABC’s subsidiaries, affiliated companies, successors and assigns, and their respective officers, directors, employees and agents, from any and all claims, losses, liabilities, damages, settlements, expenses and costs, including, without limitation, reasonable attorneys’ fees, experts’ fees and court costs, whether actual or threatened, brought by third parties arising out of or related to any breach by COMPANY of a warranty hereunder or any material breach of this Agreement by COMPANY. ABC shall have the right, but not the obligation, to participate in the defense of any Indemnified Claim at its sole expense through counsel of its own choosing without forfeiting, reducing or otherwise affecting ABC’s right to indemnification hereunder . COMPANY may not settle any Indemnified Claim without the prior written approval of ABC, which approval shall not be unreasonably withheld or delayed. 
第九条 责任、保证和补偿条款 
9.1 若在履行本协议项下的服务项目过程中,“公司”有疏忽或有意的不当行为,导致 ABC 公司遭受任何实际的、能够证实的和直接费用,则“公司”应当就此对 ABC 公司进行全额补偿;然而, ABC 公司应当提供充分的证据证明该等费用。“公司”决不承担任何特殊的或者间接的损失。 
9.2 “公司”应当采取最大努力挑选分包商,同时, ABC 公司对分包商有批准权。若 ABC 公司对“公司”聘用的分包商不满意, ABC 公司有权要求其撤换。 
9.3 “公司”在此作出如下陈述、保证和承诺: (i) “公司”应当按照专业标准提供本协议项下的服务项目,其提供的服务项目应当符合附件 A 的描述,并且不得存在任何实质性的错误或其它缺陷; (ii) 在本协议项下向 ABC 公司提供的工作产品和应交付物品, ABC 公司使用该等产品和交付物品以及“公司”所提供的服务项目没有,也不会侵犯任何第三方专利权、版权、商标权,商业秘密,掩膜作品或其它产权或所有权; (iii) “公司”有权向客户提供服务项目并将其中的权利授予客户,而无须获得任何转让,过户,同意,批准,豁免或其它还没有获得的权利; (iv) “公司”有完全的公司权力订立本协议并履行本协议项下的义务; (v) 服务项目的履行应当遵守所有适用法律和法规; (vi) ABC 公司所获得的工作产品和应交付产品应当是免费的,处于良好状态并且具有完整的所有权。 
9.4 若“公司”违反本协议项下任何保证或实质性违反本协议,致使 ABC 公司及其子公司,关联公司,继承人和受让人以及各自的管理人员,董事,雇员和代理人遭受任何由第三方提出的索赔,诉讼,损失,赔偿责任,损害,费用,开 支,包括但不限于合理的律师费,专家费和诉讼费,无论是实际产生或威胁要进行的,则“公司”应当就此对 ABC 公司及其子公司进行全额赔偿,确保其免受任何上述损失和费用。 ABC 公司有权(并非义务)通过其选定的律师参与对前述“免责的诉讼”进行抗辩,由此产生的费用由 ABC 公司自行承担, ABC 公司参与该等抗辩并不损害其在本协议项下获得补偿的权利。未经 ABC 公司事先书面同意,“公司”不得就前述“免责的诉讼”达成和解,但是, ABC 公司没有合理的理由不得拒绝或推迟同意“公司”就前述“免责的诉讼”达成和解。 
  
  
Section 10 - Audits    
10.1 COMPANY shall at all times, upon reasonable notice, allow ABC, its designated representatives, and/or regulatory agencies, access to their premises, records, processes, and SOPs for purposes of ensuring compliance with the terms of this Agreement. Any corrective action resulting from such audits shall be implemented by COMPANY immediately. 
第十条 检查 
10.1 应合理的通知,“公司”应当随时允许 ABC 公司及其指定的代表和(或)管理代表进入“公司”的办公场所,查阅记录,检查过程和标准操作程序,以确保符合本协议的规定。若检查后 ABC 公司要求采取纠正措施,则“公司”应当立即采取措施纠正。 
二、 其他注意事项 
1、 附件名称的翻译。 
例3. “Performance Security” means the irrevocable standby letter of credit which the Concessionaire is required to deliver to PSALM before the Commencement Date pursuant to Section 2.05 of the Concession Agreement (Performance Security) . 
参考译文: “ 履约保证金 ” 指特许经营公司根据《特许经营协议》第 2.05 条(履约保证金)项下规定必须于起始日前向 PSALM 交付的不可撤销的备用信用证。 
2、 Working days/business days 的翻译(不可疏忽省略其中的 working/business ) 
3、 Rescind (撤销) 这个词要慎用,它是指:撤销合同,并使合同各方回复到签约前的地位 / 状态。 
(一) 违约: 
1 、 C-E ( 需修改的例子 ) 
第 8 条 违约 
如果下述任何情形发生,视为质押人违约,质押权人有权行使本协议项下的质押权: 
8.1 质押人未能根据主合同的规定偿还任何本金或利息并且该违约情形在发生后三十日内未得到适当补救或弃权或主合同规定的质押人的其他违约事件发生。 
8 2 质押人在本协议项下对质押权人作出的任何陈述或保证或质押人提供的其他信息在任何实质方面是或被证实是错误或误导。 
8.3 未经质押权人书面同意,质押人将其对质押人的任何或全部股权进行再质押或转让或作出任何其他伤害质押权人在本协议项下质押权利的处置。 
Article 8 Breach of Contract 
In case of occurrence of any of the following circumstances, the Chargor shall be deemed to have breached this Agreement, and the Chargee shall have the right to exercise the security interest hereunder: 
8.1 The Chargor fails to repay any principal or interest in accordance with the Principal Agreement, and fails to take any remedy or waiver within thirty days from the occurrence of such breach, or other breaching acts of the Chargor set forth in the Principal Agreement; 
8.2 Any representations or warranty made by the Chargor to the Chargee hereunder or any information provided by the Chargor is or is proved to be wrong or misguiding in substantial respects. 
8.3 Without obtaining the consent of the Chargee, the Chargor assigns, re-pledges or otherwise disposes of any or all of the Pledged Equity, or carries out any disposal of the Pledged Equity that will damage the security interest. 


第六部分 格式条款
一、 服务合同格式条款 
Section 11 - Communications And Payments    
11.1 Checks will be made payable to: “ 【 name 】 ” and sent to:    
【 address 】 
Attention: 
Institution Tax Identification Number:     
11.2 Any notice required or permitted hereunder shall be in writing and shall be deemed given as of the date it is: (a) delivered by hand; (b) by overnight or next day delivery; (c) received by Registered or Certified Mail, postage prepaid, return receipt requested; or (d) received by facsimile, as can be presumptively demonstrated by return fax or letter demonstrating successful facsimile transmission; and addressed to the party to receive such notice at the address(es) and/or facsimile telephone number(s) set forth below, or such other address as is subsequently specified to the notifying party by the receiving party in writing. 
If to COMPANY: 
【 name 】 
【 address 】 
Telephone: 
Facsimile: 
If to ABC: 
【 name 】 
【 title 】 
【 address 】 
Telephone: 
Facsimile: 
  
With a copy to: 
General Counsel 
【 ABC 】 
【 address 】 
Telephone: 
Facsimile: 
第十一条 通讯和付款 
11.1 支票应当支付给: (名称)并送交至: 
地址: 
联系人: 
单位税号: 
11.2 本协议项下所有通知应当以书面形式为之,并且在下列情况下视为已经交付: (a) 专人递送; (b) 经由隔日送达业务递送; (c) 由挂号邮件或保证邮件方式接受,邮资预付,需要回执; (d) 由传真接收,并回传真或信函证明已经成功发送;通知应当按照下列地址送交当事人,或按照下列电话号码传送,或者按照接受一方最近书面通知的地址或号码为 准: 
本公司: 
【名称】 
地址: 
电话号码: 
传真:  
  
ABC 公司: 
姓名: 
职务: 
【 ABC 】 
【地址】 
电话: 
传真: 
    
另外抄送一份至: 
首席律师 
【 ABC 公司名称】 
【地址】 
电话: 
传真: 
    
Section 12 – Arbitration and Applicable Law    
12.1 The parties agree that any and all disputes, claims or controversies arising out of or relating to this Agreement that are not resolved by their mutual agreement shall be submitted to final and binding arbitration before JAMS, or its successor, pursuant to the United States Arbitration Act, 9 U.S.C. Sec. 1 et seq. Either party may commence the arbitration process called for in this agreement by filing a written demand for arbitration with JAMS, with a copy to the other party. The arbitration will be conducted in accordance with the provisions of JAMS’ Comprehensive Arbitration Rules and Procedures in effect at the time of filing of the demand for arbitration. The parties will cooperate with JAMS and with one another in selecting a single arbitrator from JAMS’ panel of neutrals, and in scheduling the arbitration proceedings. The parties covenant that they will participate in the arbitration in good faith. The provisions of this Paragraph may be enforced by any Court of competent jurisdiction, and the party seeking enforcement shall be entitled to an award of all costs, fees and expenses, including attorneys fees, to be paid by the party against whom enforcement is ordered. The place of arbitration shall be Orange County, California. The arbitrators shall apply the law of the State of California (regardless of that jurisdiction‘s or any other jurisdiction’s choice of law principles).    
12.2 This Agreement shall be governed by the laws of the State of California, without regard to its conflict of laws rules. 
第十二条 仲裁和适用法律 
12.1 本协议双方当事人同意:若因本协议或与本协议相关而产生任何争议,索赔或分歧,并且双方未能达成一致解决意见,则应当将前述争议、索赔或分歧提交至 JAMS 或其继承人按照美国仲裁法案( United States Arbitration Act, 9 U.S.C. Sec. 1 et seq. )进行仲裁,其仲裁裁决具有终局性,对双方当事人具有约束力。本协议任何一方均有权向 JAMS 提交一份书面仲裁请求,以启动仲裁程序,并将该请求的一份复印件送交与对方当事人。仲裁应当按照提请仲裁时有效的 JAMS 综合仲裁规则( JAMS’ Comprehensive Arbitration Rules )进行。本协议双方当事人应当与 JAMS 以及对方协作,从 JAMS 中立成员小组中选定一名仲裁员并为仲裁程序作日程安排。本协议双方当事人承诺各自将以善意的态度参与仲裁。任何一个有管辖权的法院均有权执行本款规定,寻 求执行本款规定的一方当事人有权从本执行的一方当事人获得所有费用和开支(包括律师费)。仲裁地为加利福尼亚州的 Orange County 郡。仲裁员应当适用加利福尼亚州法律(无论管辖权的选择或法律原则的选择)。 
12.2 本协议受加利福尼亚州法律管辖,不适用冲突法原则。 
   
Section 13 – Survival 
13.1 The covenants and agreements set forth in Sections 3, 8 and 12 shall survive any termination or expiration of this Agreement and shall remain in full force and effect regardless of the cause of termination. 
第十三条 效力持续    
13.1 本协议第三条,第八条和第十二条中所载之承诺和协定在本协议终止或届满之后仍然持续有效,无论由于任何原因终止,前述条款之效力应当保持完整效力。 
   
Section 14 – Validity of Provisions and Severability    
14.1 If any provision of this Agreement is or becomes or is deemed to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any jurisdiction, (a) such provision shall be deemed amended to conform to applicable law of such jurisdiction so as to be valid and enforceable, or, if it cannot be so amended without materially altering the intent of the parties, it will be stricken; (b) the validity, legality and enforceability of such provision will not in any way be affected or impaired thereby in any other jurisdiction; (c) the remainder of this Agreement will remain in full force and effect. 
第十四条 条款的效力和可分割性 
14.1 若本协议任何条款在任何管辖区域内无效或被视为无效,非法或无法执行, (a) 该条款应被视为已作修改,符合该管辖区域的适用法律,并且具有效力和可执行性,或者,若在保持双方当事人意图的前提下已经无法修改该条款,则该条款无效; (b) 该条款在其它管辖区域内的效力、合法性和可执行性不得因此受到任何影响; (c) 本协议其它条款的效力不受影响。 
   
Section 15 - Miscellaneous    
15.1 Neither party shall have the right to assign this Agreement or any of the rights or obligations hereunder without the prior written consent of the other party, except that ABC may assign this Agreement to an affiliate or a subsidiary or a successor to that area of its business to which this Agreement is related.    
15.2 This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement between the parties on the subject matter and supersedes all prior contracts, agreements and understandings relating to the same subject matter between the parties. The parties intend this Agreement to be a complete statement of the terms of their agreement, and no change or modification of any of the provisions of this Agreement shall be effective unless it is in writing and signed by a duly authorized officer of COMPANY and ABC. The parties specifically agree and acknowledge that COMPANY’s general conditions and conditions for the provision of services shall not apply to any transaction between them.     
15.3 This Agreement is executed in two counterparts each of which shall be deemed an original but all of which taken together shall constitute one and the same instrument.    
15.4 This Agreement between the parties shall be considered a basic agreement, the terms and conditions of which shall apply to each Exhibit agreed upon by the parties. Exhibits are hereby incorporated into this Agreement. 
第十五条 杂项 
15.1 未经另一方事先书面同意,本协议任何一方不得转让本协议或其项下任何权利或义务,但是, ABC 公司有权将本协议转让给本协议业务相关的其关联公司、子公司或继承人。 
15.2 本协 议构成双方当事人就本协议标的事项所达成的完全合意,本协议取代双方当事人此前就本协议标的事项所达成的所有合同,协议以及谅解协定。本协议双方当事人同 意本协议构成双方的完整约定;本协议变更或修改必须经双方当事人授权代表以书面形式签署,否则无效。本协议双方当事人明确同意并承认: ” 公司 ” 为其服务项目所指定的一般性条款不适用于 ” 公司 ” 和 ABC 公司之间的任何交易。 
15.3 本协议以一式两份副本签署,每份副本均应视为正本,各副本构成相同文件。 
15.4 本协议应被视为基本协议,其条款应适用于双方当事人约定的所有附件。本协议附件构成本协议之一部分。 
二、 
1 条款标题: 
举例 
1 ) Headings; Section References . Section headings are for convenience of reference only, do not form part of this Agreement, and shall not be deemed to limit or otherwise affect any of the provisions hereof. References to Articles, Sections, Subsections, the preamble, the Recitals, Schedules and Exhibits, unless otherwise indicated, are references to Articles, Sections, Subsections, the preamble, the Recitals, the Schedules and Exhibits of this Agreement. 
参考译文: 标题和章节引用 本协议中的章节标题仅为引用之便而设,不属于本协议正文内容部分,亦不应被视为限制或者以其它方式影响本协议的任何规定。除非明确表示另有所指,本协议中在使用条、节、小节、款、序文、陈述、附表和附录时,所指涉的均系本协议之条、节、小节、款、序文、陈述、附表和附录 
2 ) Headings. - The section headings in this Agreement are for convenience of reference only and shall not modify, define, expand or limit any of the terms or provisions hereof, and all references herein to numbered sections, unless otherwise indicated, are to sections of this Agreement. 
参考译文: 标题效力。 本合同中的条款标题名称仅为方便查阅,不得用于修改、界定、扩张解释或限制解释任何条款规定本身。本合同中提到的所有条款编号均指本合同条款,另有说明者除外。 
2 管辖法律 / 适用法律 
例3. GOVERNING LAW . The Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China, without regard to the conflicts of law principles thereof. 
参考译文:管辖法律 本协议受中华人民共和国香港特别行政区法律(冲突法规则除外)管辖并依该法解释。 
例 7 (1) This Agreement shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the substantive laws of England, regardless of the conflict of laws thereof. 
参考译文: 本协议受英格兰实体法管辖并据其解释,冲突法除外。 
3 争议解决 
相关英文表述参考: 
16 D ispute Resolution 
16.01 Amicable Settlement . In the event of any dispute, controversy, or claim of any kind whatsoever arising out of or in connection with this Agreement, including any question regarding its existence, validity, interpretation, performance or termination (a “Dispute”), the Parties shall in the first instance attempt diligently and in good faith, for a period of sixty (60) calendar days after the receipt by a Party of a written notice from the other Party of a Dispute, to settle the Dispute by mutual discussion between authorized representatives of the Parties. The period for settlement of a particular Dispute may be extended upon the mutual written agreement of the Parties. The Parties agree that receipt of a written notice of Dispute tolls the running of any applicable statute of limitations on any claim for the initial sixty (60) calendar day negotiation period and for any mutually agreed upon extension of that period. 
16.02 Arbitration . The Parties hereby consent to, and agree that any Dispute not settled within the time allowed by Section 16.01 (Amicable Settlement) shall be settled by arbitration in Singapore in accordance with the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules as at present in force. The arbitration shall be administered by the Singapore International Arbitration Centre (“SIAC”) in accordance with its practice rules and regulations. The Parties further agree as follows: 
( a ) The arbitral tribunal shall consist of three (3) arbitrators, one (1) of whom shall be appointed by PSALM and TRANSCO and one (1) of whom shall be appointed by the Concessionaire. The two (2) arbitrators so appointed shall appoint the third arbitrator, who shall serve as the chairman of the arbitral tribunal. If any of the Parties fails to appoint its arbitrator within ten (10) days after receiving notice of the arbitration, or if the two (2) appointed arbitrators cannot agree on the third arbitrator within ten (10) days after the appointment of the second arbitrator, then such arbitrator shall be appointed by the Chairman or Deputy Chairman of the SIAC. 
( b ) The arbitration shall be conducted in the English language and any documents presented in any other language at such arbitration shall be accompanied by an English translation thereof. 
16.03 Joinder . To the extent that either the Parties agree, or the arbitrators rule, that: 
(a) any Dispute arising under this Agreement is related to one or more disputes that are pending with respect to any Transaction Document or arrangement involving one or more common parties; 
(b) such other disputes are being arbitrated; and 
(c) judicial economy could be achieved and/or the possibility of conflicting outcomes avoided if the arbitrations regarding the various disputes were to be joined and the issues presented wholly or partially in a single proceeding, 
then the Parties and the arbitrators shall take all actions necessary or advisable to accomplish such joinder.Continuation of Performance. Unless the Parties mutually agree otherwise in writing, they shall continue to perform all of their respective obligations under this Agreement without interruption during the resolution of any Dispute under this Article 16. 
4 完整协议 
例4. This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement between the Parties and supersedes all previous negotiations, understandings, representations, undertakings agreements, written or otherwise, between the Parties relating to the subject matter hereof. 
参考译文: 本协议构成双方间的完整合意,并将取代双方于此前就 “ 本协议 ” 标的所进行的所有书面或者非书面的磋商,谅解,声明,承诺,协议。 
例 9 ( 1 ) Entire Agreement . This Agreement and the other Transaction Documents embody the entire agreement between the Parties relating to the subject matter hereof. The Parties shall not be bound by or liable for any documents proposed or submitted prior to the Commencement Date and not incorporated into this Agreement (by reference or otherwise), or for any statement, representation, promise, inducement or understanding of any kind or nature relating to the subject matter of this Agreement not set forth or provided for in the Transaction Documents. 
参考译文: 完整协议 本 协议及其它交易文件构成双方就本协议项下之标的达成的完整协议。在起始日前拟定的或提交的且与本协议之标的有关,但并未通过援引或其它方式纳入本协议规定 内容的任何文件,以及与本协议项下标的有关但未在交易文件中列明的任何性质的声明,陈述,承诺,引言或谅解,对各方均不具有拘束力,各方对此亦不承担任何 责任 。 
5 可分割性 
例5. 
Severability . If any one or more of the provisions of this Agreement is held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality or enforceability of the remaining provisions of this Agreement will not be affected thereby, and the Parties will use their reasonable efforts to substitute one or more valid, legal and enforceable provisions which, insofar as practicable, implement the purposes and intent hereof. To the extent permitted by Applicable Law, each Party waives any provision of law, which renders any provision of this Agreement invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect. 
参考译文: 可分割性 若 本协议之一项或多项规定被认定无效、非法或不能执行,其它规定的有效性、合法性及可执行性不受影响,且各方将尽其合理努力代之以一项或多项目前为止被认为 适当的,能够实现本协议意图的规定。在适用法律允许的前提下,各方同意放弃任何使得本协议中任何规定无效、非法或不可执行的法律规定。 
6 合同修改;弃权 
例6. Amendment; Waiver . The Parties acknowledge and agree that: (i) the Parties may amend this Agreement only in writing signed by each of them; (ii) no breach of any covenant, agreement, representation or warranty made herein shall be deemed waived unless expressly waived in writing by the Party who might assert such breach; (iii) the waiver by a Party of a breach of any term or provision of this Agreement shall not constitute a waiver of any subsequent breach; and (iv) neither the review or comment by one Party of or on the other Party’s documents, nor the witnessing by one Party of the other Party’s performance, nor the rendering of any certificate, shall be deemed for any purpose hereunder to constitute a waiver of any representation, warranty or right. 
参考译文: 修 订 ;放弃 本 协议 双方当事人确 认 并同意: 
(a) 对本协议进行修改,必须有双方当事人以书面形式签署; 
(b) 若一方违反本协议所载任何承诺、约定、陈述或保证,则除了另一方以书面形式明确表示放弃追究的权利外,该权利不得视为放弃; 
(c) 若一方放弃追究另一方违反本协议项下违约责任,不应视为放弃对任何随后发生的违约责任的追究权利; 
(d) 本协议任何一方审查或评论另一方的文件,或一方目击另一方履行本协议的行为,或签发任何证书,一律不得视为该方放弃任何相关陈述、保证或权利。 
例 11 ( 2 ) AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS . The parties may mutually amend or waive any provision of this Agreement at any time. No amendment or waiver of any provision of this Agreement shall be valid unless the same shall be in writing and signed by all of the parties. No waiver by any Party of any default, misrepresentation, or breach of warranty or covenant hereunder, whether intentional or not, shall be deemed to extend to any prior or subsequent default, misrepresentation or breach of warranty or covenant hereunder or affect in any way any rights arising by virtue of any prior or subsequent such occurrence. 
参考译文 : 修订和弃权 各方当事人可以 于任何时间通过协商对本协议规定进行修订和撤销本协议规定。对本协议规定的修订和撤销必须采用书面形式并由各方当事人签字,方能生效。任何一方放弃任何违 约、错误陈述或违反本协议项下保证或承诺行为(无论是否为故意行为),不得视为放弃先前或之后的违约、错误陈述或违反本协议项下保证或承诺行为,亦不影响 因任何先前或之后出现之该等行为引起的任何权利。(看股份抵押协议中是否有例子) 
7 副本 
例7. 
Counterparts . This Agreement may be executed in two (2) or more counterparts, all of which will be considered one and the same agreement and each of which will be deemed an original. 
参考译文: 副本 本协议可签订两( 2 )份或多份副本,这些副本应视为同一协议且均被视为正本。 
8 语言 
例8. Language . This Agreement is being executed and delivered in the English language and all modifications, amendments and waivers of any provision of this Agreement and all other written documents between the Parties in connection with this Agreement (including any arbitration) shall, except as otherwise agreed by the Parties, be in the English language. No translation of this Agreement into any other language shall be of any force or effect in the interpretation of this Agreement. 
参考译文: 语言 本协议以英文拟就并交付,除各方另行协商同意外,对本协议及各方签定的任何与本协议有关的文件之规定的所有修订、增补和放弃均应以英文进行。本协议的任何其它语言译本在解释本协议时均无法律效力。 
9 合同有效期 
例9. 
Effectivity . This Agreement shall take effect and be binding on Company A and Company B only upon Company A and Company B’s execution and delivery of this Agreement to the Concessionaire. Company A and Company B’s execution and delivery of this Agreement to the Concessionaire shall be preconditioned upon Company A and Company B’s securing the necessary governmental approvals pursuant to Applicable Law. 
参考译文: 生效  本协议仅得于公司 A 和 公司 B 根据适用法律规定取得必须的政府批准,签署本协议并将经正式签署的协议副本交付“特许经营公司”后方可生效,并对公司 A 和 公司 B 产生约束力。公司 A 和 公司 B 须根据适用法规定取得必要的政府批准后方可签署本协议并将其副本交付“特许经营公司”。 
10 转让 
例 16 、 
Assignment . 
 
This Agreement and all provisions hereof will be binding upon, and inure to the benefit of, the Parties and their respective successors and permitted assigns. Except as expressly contemplated hereunder, the Investors or their successors or assignees shall not (without the written consent of PSALM): (i) assign this Agreement, or any right, interest, or obligation hereunder, or (ii) allow any other Person to be subrogated to any right or obligation under this Agreement. 
参考译文: 
转让 
本协议与本协议中的所有条款对各方及其各自的 继受人和允许的受让人均具有约束力,且适用于各方及其各自的继受人和允许的受让人。除本协议另有规定外,投资方及其继受人或受让人不得(未经 PSALM 事先书面许可): (i) 转让本协议,或本协议项下的任何权利、利益或义务,或 (ii) 允许其他人代其行使或履行其在本协议项下的任何权利或义务。 
11 不可抗力 
例 17 、 E-C 
Force Majeure 
( a ) Force Majeure, including acts of governments, acts of nature, fire, explosion, typhoon, flood, earthquake, tide, lightning and war, means any event that is beyond the party's reasonable control and cannot be prevented with reasonable care. However, any shortage of credit, capital or finance shall not be regarded as an event of Force Majeure. The party affected by Force Majeure shall notify the other party without delay. 
( b ) In the event that the affected party is delayed in or prevented from performing its obligations under this Agreement by Force Majeure, only within the scope of such delay or prevention, the affected party will not be responsible for any damage by reason of such a failure or delay of performance. The affected party shall take appropriate means to minimize or remove the effects of Force Majeure and attempt to resume performance of the obligations delayed or prevented by the event of Force Majeure. After the event of Force Majeure is removed, both parties agree to resume performance of this Agreement with their best efforts. 
参考译文: 
(a) 不可抗力,是指当事人无法合理控制,合理预防的任何事件,包括政府行为,自然灾害,火灾,爆炸,台风,水灾,地震,海潮,雷电,和战争等。但是,任何信用,资金或财务上的匮乏不得被视为不可抗力事件。受不可抗力影响的一方应毫不迟延地通知另一方。 
(b) 受不可抗力影响而迟延履行或因受阻而未能履行其本协议项下义务的一方可在此种迟延或受阻的范围内,对任何因此种迟延履行或不履行而引起的损害免于承担责 任。受不可抗力影响的一方应采取适当措施尽力降低或根除不可抗力事件的影响,并应努力恢复履行被迟延或因受阻而未能履行的义务。在不可抗力事件消除后,双 方应同意尽其最大努力恢复本协议的履行。 
12 通知 
例 18 、 
1 、 Notices . Each notice, demand, report or other communication to be given or made or other documents to be delivered under this Agreement shall be in writing and in the English language and delivered or sent to the relevant Party at its address, email address or fax number set out in Schedule 8 (Notices) (or such other address, email address or fax number as the addressee has specified to the other Parties), with a copy to all parties indicated on Schedule 8 (Notices) at the address, email address or fax number indicated in Schedule 8 (Notices) (or such other address, email address or fax number as the addressee has specified to the other Parties). Any notice, demand, report or other communication shall be deemed to have been delivered (i) if given or made by letter, when actually delivered to the relevant address, (ii) if given by email, when receipt of the email is acknowledged by the recipient, and (iii) if given or made by fax, when dispatched with a simultaneous confirmation of transmission; provided, however, if such day is not a business day in the place to which it is sent, such notice, demand, report or other communication shall be deemed delivered on the next following business day at such place. Either Party may change the address, email address and fax number to which notices are to be addressed by giving the other Party notice in the manner herein set forth. 
参考译文: 通知 本 协议中的即将给出或拟就的每一通知、催付书,报告或其它函件或其它交付的文件均应采用书面形式以英文进行,并应交付或发送至相关方于附件 8 (通知)中指定的地址、电子邮箱或传真号码(或其它此种已经明确告知其它各方的地址,电子邮件信箱或传真号码),并应向附件 8 (通知)中列明的所有各方地址、电子邮箱、传真号码发送一份副本(或其它此种已经明确告知其它各方的地址,电子邮件信箱或传真号码)。下列情形下,任何通 知、催付书、报告或其它函件将被视为已经交付: 
(a) 以信件形式给出或拟就的,当信件被实际送达相关地址时, 
(b) 以电子邮件形式给出的,当收件人确认回执时,以及 
(c) 以传真形式给出或拟就的,当收到同时发出的传送确认时。 
但是,若当日并非接受地的工作日,则该通知,催付书,报告或其它函件应被视为于下一工作日于该接受地被交付。在以本协议中规定的方式通知另一方后,任何一方均可变更其接受通知的地址、电子邮箱和传真号码。 
13 保密 
例 19 、 
1 ) E-C 
ARTICLE 2 – CONFIDENTIALITY 
2.1 Each Party shall treat as strictly confidential and shall not disclose to any third party the content or the fact of this Agreement or any information received from the other Party which relates to the Project, provided, however, that each Party may disclose such information to its directors, employees, affiliates and any outside consultants with a clear need to know such information in order for such Party to carry out its work in relation to the Project. The restrictions contained in this paragraph shall not apply to any information which is: 
(a) in the public domain through no breach of any confidentiality provision; 
(b) already in the possession of the recipient Party; 
(c) required to be disclosed by law or government order, rule, regulation or decree, provided, however that the Party who is required such disclosure shall immediately give written notice to the disclosing Party in order to enable it to seek remedies; or 
(d) acquired from a third party which has the right to provide such information. 
2.2 No Party shall issue any press release concerning this Agreement or the Project, unless all Parties agree in writing to the text of such press release. 
参考译文: 
第 2 条 - 保密 
2.1 每 “ 一方 ” 对于 “ 本协议 ” 的内容或事实或者从另一方处获得的与该 “ 项目 ” 有关的任何信息均应当严格保密并不得泄露给任何第三方 , 但是 , 每 “ 一方 ” 均可将此等信息透露给其董事 , 员工 , 关联公司及外聘顾问 , 且上述人等获知此等信息须为该方实施该 “ 项目 ” 相关工作所必需。 本款中规定的此种限制不适用下列任何信息: 
(a) 非因违反任何保密规定而业已为公众所知的信息 ; 
(b 已经为该等信息的授受方占有的信息 ; 
(c) 法律规定或者政府的命令 , 规定 , 条例或行政裁决要求予以披露的信息 , 但是 , 被要求进行此种披露的一方应当立即书面通知另一方 , 以便该另一方寻求救济 ; 或者 
(d) 自有权披露此等信息的第三方处获得的信息。 
2.2 任何一方均不得发布与 “ 本协议 ” 或者该 “ 项目 ” 有关的任何新闻稿 , 除非双方已经就该新闻稿的文本书面达成一致。 
举例(负面): 
7. CONFIDENTI A LITY 
(a) Tr ea tm e nt of Confid e n t i a l I nform a tion. E nterpri s e ackn o w le d g es that the Sof t w a re (and any in f ormati o n inco r porat e d t h ere i n or relat ed thereto) is the Conf i dent i al Information o f Entrust . Enterprise shall ret ai n the Conf i d e ntial Information o f Entrust in conf i den c e a n d sha l l use a n d disclo s e it sol el y for the pu r p o se of, and in a c cord a nc e w ith, this Agreemen t . Enterprise sh a ll o n l y dis c lo s e Conf i d e ntial Information o f Entrust to those of its empl oy ee s w ith a n e e d to kn o w su c h Confidential Info rm ation. Enter p rise sh a ll use t he same d e gr e e of care as it uses to protect it s o w n c o nfi d ent i al informat i on of a similar n atu r e, but no less t han r e as o na bl e care, to prev ent the unaut h or i zed use or d is c losu r e of Entrust’s Conf i dent i al Inform a tion. Enterpri s e sha l l not be bo u nd b y any obl i gat i ons res t ricting d isclo sur e and u s e set forth in this Agreemen t w i t h r e spect to Conf id enti a l Informatio n of Entrust w h ich: (i ) w a s kn o w n to the recei v ing par t y ( or a n y o f its Affiliates) prior to disc l osu r e; (ii ) w a s l a w f u lly in th e pu b lic do m a i n prior to its disc l osure, or 
beco m es p u bl icl y a v ai l a b le o t her than th r ou g h a brea c h of this Agree m ent; (iii ) w a s disc l ose d to Enterprise b y a thi r d-par t y , prov i ded t h at such third - par ty is not in br e ac h of a n y confi d ent i ali ty obl i gat i on i n r e spect of such i nformati o n; or (iv) is in d ep e n d ent l y d eve l o p ed b y Enterprise. 
(b ) If Enterprise is comp e ll ed pur s uant to l e gal, j u dici a l, or adm i nistrativ e proc e ed i ngs, or othe r w i s e re q uir e d by l a w , to disclo s e C o nfi d enti a l Informat i on of Entrust, Enterpri s e sha l l use rea s o n ab l e efforts to (i) seek conf i d e nti a l treatment for such C o nfi d en t ial Informat i on , and (ii) p r ovi d e prior n otice to Entrust to all ow Ent r ust (or, if app l ica b le, o n e of its Affiliates) to seek protect i ve or other c ou rt orders. 【 Source: Software License ( 06-08 )—— client translation 】 
参考译文: 
7. 保密 
( a )保密信息的处理。 企 业承认软件(以及软件所含或有关的任何信息)是 Entrust 的保密信息。企业应自信地保留和仅为本协议之目的和规定,使用和披露 Entrust 的保密信息。企业只对那些有必要知道的雇员披露 Entrust 的保密信息。企业应用保护其同类保密信息程度但不低于合理的管理方法来防止 Entrust 的保密信息被未经授权使用或披露。企业对以下 Entrust 的保密信息不受本协议所述之限制披露和使用的义务:( i )在披露前接收方或其下属机构已经知道;( ii )在披露前已被合法地公开,或不是通过违反本协议在公开场所取得;( iii )由第三方提供给企业,只要该第三方不违反该信息的保密义务;或( iv )是由企业独立开发的。 
(b) 如果由于法律、司法或行政诉讼程序或法律所需被迫披露 Entrust 的保密信息,企业应使用合理的努力( i )对该保密信息寻求保密处理,以及( ii )给 Entrust 提前发通知,允许 Entrust (或其下属机构,如果可行)寻求保护或其他法庭令。 
第七部分 合同结尾句
( In witness whereof … ) 
一、 服务合同结尾句 
In Witness Whereof , the following have caused this Agreement to be executed by their respective duly authorized representatives effective as of this day and year above written. 
参考译文一: 本协议由被授权人代表各自当事人签署,自本协议序文所述日期生效,特此为证。 
参考译文二:兹证明 双方已授权其正式授权代表于首页所载日期签署本协议。 
二、 
例3. 
1) In witness whereof , the Parties hereto have caused this Agreement to be duly executed as of the day and year first written above. 
参考译文: 本协议各方已于本协议开始部分写明的日期正式签署本协议,特此证明。 
2) In witness whereof , the Parties hereto have caused this Agreement to be duly executed as of the day and year first written above. 
参考译文: 为昭信守,协议各方已于文首载明之日期签署了本协议。 
相关中文表述: 兹证明 各方正式授权代表于首页所载日期签署本协议。 
第八部分 签字部分
 
例子: Company A By:___________________ Name: Title: Company B By:______________________________________ Name: Title: 
举例: 
(Licens e e) 
Date: _____ _ ___ _ __ _ __ By: __ _ __ __ ___ _ __ _ __ __ ___ _ __ _ __ __ ___ 
( Licensor) 
Date: _____ _ ___ _ __ _ __ By: __ _ __ __ ___ _ __ _ __ __ ___ _ __ _ __ __ ___ 
参考译文: 
(被许可方) 
签署日期: _____ _ ___ _ __ _ __ 签署人: _________________ 
( 许可方 ) 
签署日期: _____ _ ___ _ 签署人: _ __ ______________ 
举例: 
For and on behalf of 
LAWSPIRIT Telecommunications (China) Co., Ltd. 
By: ____________________ 
Name: 
Title: 
For and on behalf of 
LAWSPIRIT Corporation 
By: ____________________ 
Name: 
Title: 
参考译文: 
Lawspirit 有限公司授权代表签名: 
授权代表姓名(印刷体): 
职务: 
日本电气公司授权代表签名: 
授权代表姓名(印刷体): 
职务: 

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